刘宁:灞桥烟柳与咸阳古渡-陕西省社会科学院

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                    刘宁:灞桥烟柳与咸阳古渡
                    发布时间:2019-04-10         来源:《西安晚报》    访问量:175次  分享到:

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                    翻阅作家游记、小说,以及搜集来的549篇民国报刊上所载文学文本,常见笔端的另一处古迹便是咸阳渡口。从西安出西关,行至四十华里便是渭水桥,作家们吟着唐诗,感叹着周的灵囿、秦的阿房宫全看不到了,只见“在咸阳城外,渭水西岸,立着一幢木牌坊,上写着‘咸阳古渡’四个字。这咸阳古渡四个字,是含着多么浓厚的苍凉诗意呵!但是这渭水河,虽是姜子牙钓过鱼的所在,和我们理想的清溪老石、游鱼历历可数的景象完全两样,这里是一片泥滩,湮没了西兰公路的路线,到泥滩上一看,那渭河由北而南微弯地流着,虽不曾发出什么巨浪,可是像黄河一样,流着很急的波纹,向前奔去。水的颜色也像黄河的水带着浑浊的泥沙,黄中有黑,令人望着,生不到一点美感。河面却是不怎么样的窄,约有半里,两岸没有山,也不见什么渔村蟹舍,东边是平原,西边是高原而已。河岸两边,都停有渡船四五只。这船和黄河里的渡船,形式也差不多,是平扁的,舱面上盖着板子,骡车人担,一齐上船,船后有一方略高的舵楼,但是没有舵,将两棵微弯的树料拼凑在一处,当了个催艄橹,拖在水里。扶橹的艄公汉子脱得赤条条的,不挂一根丝,口里吆喝着,当是指挥的口令。在他指挥之下,有四五个船夫,拿着瘦小的树干,当了篙撑。有时撑篙的也就跳下船去,硬扶了船走。这样一道河面,往往是要一小时才能渡过,至快至快,也要三十分钟,这渡船的蠢笨,可想而知。我拟想着,古人造这种渡船,也许是用他们的鸟打样的,所以头尾都是方的。由汉唐到现在,大概这船都保持着它的原状,不曾改换,若说是古渡,也真可以称得起古渡了。咸阳城外,临水有三五十户人家,映带着两个小箭楼,和一条浑浊的渭水,旷野上的太阳,斜斜地照着,那种荒寒的景象,是深深地印在我脑筋里。因为咸阳古渡这四个字,老早唤起了我的注意呀。咸阳城内,还有不少的神话古迹,因赶着行路,没有进城去参观。”咸阳古渡是关中八景中最后一景,张恨水在《西游小记》里如此写出了民国时古渡口的忙碌及历史沧桑变化。    

                    灞桥烟柳是一派离情别绪,咸阳古渡笼罩在夕阳下是历史的沉迷,前者在西安以东,后者在西安以西,东西遥遥相望,历史就在春天的灞桥柳,冬日的灞桥雪。


                    刘宁,文学艺术研究所研究员。

                    (原文刊登在《西安晚报》2020年4月10日07版文化专栏)

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